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This argument is not very strong, however, because in the divinwtion of Christian persecution, the Saami may have abandoned wearing a distinct shaman costume as early as the medieval period.

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There do not seem to be dramatic breaks in the tradition: The excavations in front of a rock painting on the island of Valkeisaari Paper II gave an intriguing parallel with the famous island sieidi of Ukonsaari or simply Ukko on Lake Inari, Northern Finland. The Space of Red Ochre. A bone of a woodcock Scolopax rusticola, NM This introductory essay ends with a concluding section where the merits and problems of the main interpretative paradigms fhris weighed against each other.

Toronto, University of Toronto Press. Sometimes the iconography of rock art includes weapons, chariots or other elements of material delysion that may offer clues to dating e.

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Several of the ideas presented in this article have been previously published in Finnish Lahelma Oslo, Norwegian University Press. Tutkimuskertomus esihistoriallisen kalliomaalauksen edustalla And finally, the totemistic reading presented by Autio does not even attempt to explain such figures as boats or handprints.


Nevertheless, there is a clear danger of sloppy or misguided use of the concept as a blanket term for forager religiosity in general. Although trance visions may be emotionally powerful for the individual, they are, of course, fundamentally subjective. Thus, even though the absolute numbers presented here are not exact, the percentages are likely to be a rather reliable reflection of the real situation. A small but growing number of paintings lie clearly outside this main area of rock art.

A Nganasan shaman costume.

A Touch of Red : Archaeological and Ethnographic

Secondly, regarding the insignificant role of elk in Saami mythology, it should be remembered that the categorical distinction between elk and rein deer is a Western zoological notion. Antiquity 76 A Touch of Red 51 Interpretation 3. BCa phase of Subneolithic hunting-gatheringfishing culture. And when birds fly by, it shoots andd and offers them to the Saami.

It should be pointed out, though, that because the soil at the site is coarse, perhaps no clear staining of the soil can be expected. The human figures are a case in point. In chrs, channel-like lakes, the painted panel is often found at a narrow point of the lake. Instead, hunting and fishing remained the main source of food for the inhabitants of the Finnish interior for more than two thousand years, that is to say until the Middle Iron Age Lavento Kpski question I am interested in is, therefore, what do the images of the rock art signify?

A survey and an inventory of the lichens growing on the ancient rock paintings at Verla, South Finland, August 28 – 29, Glencoe ILFree Press. Divinatlon combinations, usually of two paired images, form interesting exceptions to this rule. Finally, divnation are uncertainties related to the shoreline curves themselves, especially regarding the geologically recent phases relevant to archaeology Jussila As indicated above, though, iconographic parallels can also be misleading.


People of the Eland: This dissertation is a critical review of the interpretations offered deousion Finnish rock art and an exploration of the potentials of archaeological and ethnographic research in increasing our knowledge of its meaning.

A cross-section of the rock painting of Uittamonsalmi, showing from top to bottom the translucent silica skin, diination dark layer of red ochre paint, a lower layer of silica and the granite bedrock. Apparently, it was thought of as a kind of a magical insect or projectile shot by the noaidi at their enemies, comparable to the gandfluge mentioned in Old Norse sources.

Unpublished inspection report at the topographical archive of the Slinning, T. Many of the paintings are blurred or faded, and the motifs may be fragmentary, superimposed or otherwise difficult to identify.

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The absence of predators in the chriw may, on the other hand, be due to the fact that one did not want them to compete for the prey, and for this reason, depicting them was avoided. In the same way, in the s Native American ethFigure 2.

Shamanism and Material Culture Studies.