variety of methods including traditional factor of safety approaches, including BS (BSI, ) and (BSI, ), CIRIA C (Phear et al, ) . Publisher: CIRIA. Soil nailing is a technique where either natural ground or fill material is reinforced by the insertion of slender tension-carrying elements called . thread Hi, My dissertation is within the scope of nailing in soils. I would like to consult the book mentioned in the topic title with the.

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The higher the grouting pressure applied, the greater the increase in the normal stresses found.

A parametric study was carried out to study the effects of the soil nail bending stiffness and the soil modulus of the subgrade reaction on the soil nail pullout behaviour. The advantages of these tests are they can be repeated, are low cost, and well instrumented.

During the pullout testing, when the nail head was pulled out for mm, the additional length mm in the extension chamber moved into the box for mm, so that the soil nail length inside the box was retained as 1. It is seen from Figure 6.

Effects of both overburden pressure and grouting pressure. It is seen the earth pressure at P-Cells 1, 2, 3, 4 increase significantly when the 80 kPa grouting pressure is applied, and then drop to stable values with time. The data measured by FBG sensors are used to compare and verify the strain gauge data. The presence of grout may also provide increased corrosion protection. The influence of both grouting pressure and overburden pressure on the soil nail pullout interface shear resistance is still not well understood owing to the complexity of soil-grout interactions.

More details on the box design and setup can be found in the work of Yin and Su and Yin et al. English View all editions and formats Summary:.

In this study case, when the soil nail bending stiffness is larger than kNm, the pullout resistance hardly increases with the soil nail bending stiffness. This chapter presents briefly the background, the objectives and ciia issues to be investigated, and the organization of the thesis. The effective earth pressures were therefore calculated by subtracting the average pore water pressure from the total earth pressures measured by the 6 earth pressure cells P-Cells c6637 Since P-Cell 5 and P-Cell 6 were placed far away from the soil nail, the variations of average effective stress at P-Cell 5 and P-Cell 6 could represent the changes of the effective overburden pressure.


Results of the original soil and after 24 pullout cc637 are shown together with the present results in Figure 4.

Soil Nailing: C637: Best Practice Guidance

After drilling, a high yield ribbed steel bar was placed in the middle of the drill hole. Skip to main content. Lubricating oil was spread between the film and the box surface. Ciriaa study also reports the use of semi-rigid inclusions by tunneling contactors into stabilize the slope ciris the tunnel portal.

It was found that the average depth changes of the three layers of earth pressure cells from the top down were 14 mm, 8 mm, and 7 mm, respectively.

Soil nailing : best practice guidance

Regarding the effect of grouting pressure, Yeung et al. Clouterre reported the effect of soil nail inclination on the tensile force distribution, as shown in Figure 2. The air in the hole was exhausted from the outgoing grouting pipe while filling the hole with cement slurry from the ingoing grouting pipe.

These soils are granular materials.

Therefore, there was no need to do duplicate tests on the cement grout properties. Many researchers have investigated the effects of the nail bending on the soil nailed structures Juran et al. Due to the limitation of the equipment, calibrating was only in the range from 0kN to 5kN.

Each year more than slopes and retaining walls have been upgraded using soil nails GEO Milligan and Tei reported a series of pullout tests on both smooth and rough surface nails in standard yellow Leighton Buzzard Sands. As shown in the top view in Figure 4. It was finally assigned as 0. They found that the loose soil around a hole after drilling was re-compacted by the grouting pressure and that the average void ratio in the adjacent zone decreased considerably after the grout pressure was applied.

However, for the same CDG soil in a saturated condition, the dilation effect at the soil nail interface was less notable, as shown in Figure 6. This phenomenon was also found in previous pullout tests Su Providing a guide for use of the technique for developers, infrastructure – and property-owners, designers, suppliers, contractors and maintenance managers, this book sets out practice for soil nailing.


In the following section, the effects of overburden pressure and grouting pressure on soil nail pullout resistance are discussed.

Lim and Briaud and Lim chose one-dimensional structural elements, such as beam and cable elements, to simulate the inclusions.

PUB C Soil nailing – best practice guidance, CIRIA – Publication Index | NBS

To compensate for the possible grout leakage, GEO recommended that a pressure head, typically about 1m above the mouth of the drillhole, should be maintained in the cement grout sleeve after completion of grouting, until the cement grout has reached the initial set.

This pressure up to kPa is to simulate the overburden pressure ciira a soil slope. In Hong Kong, grouting is usually carried out under gravity or very low pressure. It was found the water content or degree of saturation in the lower box was comparatively higher than that in the upper box. Literature Review laboratory pullout tests in loose CDG soils, and observed normal pressure increase or decrease before reaching the peak due to the dilative or contractive tendency of the soil.

Firstly, a small pit in the compacted soil was made in which to place the pressure cell, followed by a slot in which to place the wire. Soil nails are divided into several types, based on the installation methods used. This model considers the nail-soil interface dilation, non-linear soil subgrade reaction, and the soil nail bending.

Your list has reached the maximum ciris of items. The pullout box is well instrumented. The actual case is that the soil surrounding the nail is a continuum and can be better simulated using a finite element model based on continuum mechanics and using proper constitutive models for the soil and the interface.