Convention on the Prohibition of Military or Any Other Hostile Use of Environmental Modification Techniques (ENMOD). ENMOD. Entry into force: 5 October. ENMOD Review Conference – Preparatory Committee () . #Gambia ratifies the Cluster Munitions Convention, bringing the number of states parties to The Convention defines environmental modification techniques as changing — through the deliberate manipulation of natural processes — the dynamics.
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Only one State, Uruguay, expressed support for convening a new review conference, while two, USA and UK, stated that they see no need for such a conference The first Review Conference took place in Geneva in September Three other should have taken place since, but the third one is still awaited.
Thirty-first session, Supplement No. This third conference never took place. The European duo proposal that a specific reference to the use of herbicides which from had been acknowledged by the US as a potential ENMOD violation would be a positive step.
The Environmental Modification Convention ENMODformally the Convention on the Prohibition of Military or Any Other Hostile Use of Environmental Modification Techniques is an international treaty prohibiting the military or other hostile use of environmental modification techniques having widespread, long-lasting or severe effects.
It opened for signature on 18 May in Geneva and entered into force on 5 October The Depositary shall take immediate steps to convene such a conference if one third or ten of the States Parties, whichever number is less, respond conventioj. Clearly, the perceived lack of relevance of ENMOD to the real security needs of most states is conventikn reason for the low level of adherence.
France still has to ratify it and the European Union as a whole has enkod call, without delay, for the convening of a new review conference.
Environmental Modification Convention
Such a complaint should include all relevant information as well as all cinvention evidence supporting ItS validity. Many states do not regard this as a complete ban on the use of herbicides in warfare, such as Agent Orangebut it does require case-by-case consideration. Its purpose was to flood the Ho Chi Minh Trail to slow enemy movement through increased rainfall caused by seeding the cloud masses with large amounts of silver iodide spread by air.
The States Parties to this Convention undertake to consult one another and to co-operate in solving any eenmod which may arise in relation to the objectives of, or in the application of the provisions of, the Convention. The Convetion shall transmit to the Depositary a summary of its findings of fact, incorporating all views and information presented to the Committee during its proceedings.
COP 21, ENMOD and the 6th November : Peace and War at Stake
Article X This Convention, of which the Arabic, Chinese, English, French, Russian and Spanish texts are equally authentic, shall be deposited with the Secretary-General of the United Nations, who shall send duly certified copies thereof to the Governments of the signatory and acceding States. Instead, when referring to article I, the Conference retreated to a conventlon non-decision, stating that: Each expert may be assisted convsntion meetings by one or more advisers.
As of Januarythe Convention has 78 state parties. The Depositary shall distribute the summary to all States Parties.
ENMOD Primer: The Second Review Conference
If one third or ten of the States Parties, whichever number is less, respond affirmatively, the Depositary shall take cojvention steps to convene the conference. The work of the Consultative Committee of Experts shall be organized in such a way as to permit it to perform the functions set forth in paragraph 1 of this annex.
Once again there were proposals to abolish the troika. For those States whose instruments of ratification or accession are deposited after the entry into force of this Convention, it shall enter into force on the date of the deposit of their instruments of ratification or accession. It is the only legal instrument capable of hindering military applications of technological advances that are developing in the field of environment and climate modifications at the risk of further compromise the fragile balances of our planet.
At the very last, we need to thoroughly canvass what measures might be taken to that end. Each State Party to this Convention undertakes to provide or support assistance, in accordance with the provisions of the Charter of the United Nations, to any State Party which so requests, if the Security Council decides that such Party has been harmed or is likely to be harmed as a result of violation of the Convention.
The Security Council shall inform the States Parties of the results of the investigation.
These international procedures may include the services of appropriate international organizations, as well as conventioon a Consultative Committee of Conventiob as provided for in paragraph 2 of this article. Each expert shall rnmod the right, through the Chairman, to request from States, and from international organizations, such information and assistance as the expert considers desirable for the accomplishment of the Committee’s work. Any State Party to this Convention may propose amendments to the Convention.
At intervals of not less than five years thereafter, a majority of the States Parties to this Convention may obtain, by submitting a proposal to this effect to the Depositary, the convening of a conference with the same objectives.
However, it was disappointed that the Conference had been unable to agree to convene an expert meeting to discuss future confidence building mechanisms and verification mechanisms, which could not but enhance the Convention.
The Conference declared that environmental modification research, as well as its use, ” should be dedicated solely to peaceful ends. The Convention was opened for signature at Geneva on 18 May The historian of science James Fleming noticed that the fantasies of controlling weather and climate have always been closely related to commercial and military interests.
Environmental Modification Convention – Wikipedia
The Depositary or his representative shall serve as the Chairman of the Committee. The result was convnetion to the Pentagon, and the operation was continued from to The provisions of this Convention shall not hinder the use of environmental modification techniques for peaceful purposes and shall be without prejudice to the generally recognized principles and applicable rules of international law concerning such use.
Croatia, Malta, Latvia, and Five years after the entry into force of this Convention, a conference of the States Parties to the Convention shall be convened by the Depositary at Geneva, Switzerland.