Aralık tarihli Helsinki Zirvesi’nde Türkiye’ye aday ülke statüsü verilmiştir Konsey sonuç bildirgesi şu ifadeleri içermektedir: “Türkiye’nin. “Yenilenebilir Enerji Bildirgesi”ni kabul etmiştir. (10). Biyolojik çeşitlilik kaybını yılına kadar büyük Avrupa Çevre ve Sağlık Konferansı (Helsinki,. ). was that the company X conducted a clinical trial violating the Helsinki Declaration and the Oxford: Oxford University Press; –
|Published (Last):||28 August 2018|
|PDF File Size:||14.45 Mb|
|ePub File Size:||13.14 Mb|
|Price:||Free* [*Free Regsitration Required]|
Located on the shore of the Gulf of Finlandit is the seat of the region of Uusimaa in southern Finland, and has a population ofIt has close historical ties with these three cities. Together with the cities of EspooVantaaand Kauniainenand surrounding commuter towns,  Helsinki forms the Greater Helsinki metropolitan area, which has a population of nearly 1.
Often considered to be Finland’s only metropolis, it is the world’s northernmost metro area with over one million people as well as the northernmost bilddirgesi of an EU member state.
After Stockholm and OsloHelsinki is the third largest city in the Nordic countries.
Computer graphics with opengl 2nd edition pdf
The city is served by the international Helsinki Airportlocated in the neighboring city of Vantaa, with frequent service to many destinations in Europe and Asia.
Helsinki has one of the highest urban standards of living in the world. Inthe British magazine Monocle ranked Helsinki the world’s most liveable city in its liveable cities index. When a town was founded in Forsby village init was named Helsinge fors, “Helsinge rapids”. The name refers to the Vanhankaupunginkoski rapids at the mouth of the river.
Official Finnish Government documents and Finnish language newspapers have used the name Helsinki sincewhen the Senate of Finland moved itself into the city from Turku. The decrees issued in Helsinki were dated with Helsinki as the place of issue. This is how the form Helsinki came to be used in written Finnish. In Helsinki slangthe city is called Stadi from the Swedish word stadmeaning “city”.
Hesa short for Helsinkiis not used by natives of the city.
In the Iron Age the area occupied by present day Helsinki was inhabited by Tavastians. They used the area for fishing and hunting, but due to a lack of archeological finds it is difficult to say how extensive their settlements were. Pollen analysis has shown that there were cultivating settlements in the area in the 10th century and surviving historical records from the 14th century describe Tavastian settlements in the area.
Swedes colonized the coastline of the Helsinki region in the late 13th century after the successful Second Crusade to Finland, which lead to the defeat of the Tavastians. Helsinki was established as a trading town by King Gustav I of Sweden in as the town of Helsingfors, hhelsinki he intended to be a rival to the Hanseatic city of Reval today known as Tallinn.
Little came of the plans as Helsinki remained a tiny town plagued by poverty, wars, and diseases. The plague of killed the greater part of the inhabitants of Helsinki. Russians besieged the Sveaborg fortress during the war, and about one quarter of the town was destroyed in an fire.
Following the Great Fire of Turku inthe Royal Academy of Turkuwhich at the time was belsinki country’s only university, was also relocated to Helsinki and eventually became the modern University of Helsinki. The move consolidated the city’s new role and helped set it on a path of continuous growth. This transformation is highly apparent in the downtown core, which was rebuilt in the neoclassical style to resemble Saint Petersburg, mostly to a plan by the German-born architect C.
As elsewhere, technological advancements such as railroads and industrialization were key factors behind the city’s growth. Despite the tumultuous nature of Finnish history during the first half of the 20th century including the Finnish Civil War and the Winter War which both left marks on the cityHelsinki continued its steady development.
A landmark event was the Olympic Gamesheld in Helsinki. Finland’s rapid urbanization in the s, occurring late relative to the rest of Europe, tripled the population in the metropolitan area, and the Helsinki Metro subway system was built.
The relatively sparse population density of Helsinki bipdirgesi its peculiar structure have often been attributed to the lateness of its growth. Called the “Daughter of the Baltic”, Helsinki is on the tip of a peninsula and on islands. A narrow, 10 kilometres 6. The City of Helsinki has about 11, boat berths and possesses over 14, hectares of marine fishing waters adjacent to the Capital Region.
Some 60 fish species hellsinki found in this area and recreational fishing is popular. Other noteworthy islands are the fortress island of Suomenlinna Sveaborgthe military island of Santahaminaand Isosaari. Pihlajasaari island is a favorite summer spot for gay bildiresi and naturists, comparable to Fire Island in New York City.
The Helsinki metropolitan area, also known as the Capital Region Finnish: Huvudstadsregionen comprises four municipalities: Helsinki, Espoo, Vantaa, and Kauniainen.
With over 20 percent of the country’s population in just 0. The metropolitan area has a high concentration of employment: The Greater Helsinki area is the world’s northernmost urban area with a population of over one million people, and the northernmost EU capital city.
The Helsinki urban area is an officially recognized urban area in Finlanddefined by its population density. Helsinki has a humid continental climate Dfb. Winters in Helsinki are notably warmer than in the north of Finland, and the snow season is much shorter in the capital, due to it being in extreme Southern Finland and the urban heat island effect.
Submission » DergiPark
However, because of the latitude, days last 5 hours and 48 minutes around the winter solstice with very low sun at noon, the sun is a little bit over 6 degrees in the skyand the cloudy weather at this time of year exacerbates darkness. Conversely, Helsinki enjoys long daylight during the summer; during the summer solsticedays last 18 hours and 57 minutes. Due to the marine effect, especially during hot summer days, daily temperatures are a little cooler and night temperatures higher than further inland.
The highest temperature ever recorded in the city centre was Unofficial low of was recorded in December Precipitation is received from frontal passages and thunderstorms. Thunderstorms are most common in the summer. Carl Ludvig Engelappointed to plan a new city centre on his own, designed several neoclassical buildings in Helsinki. The focal point of Engel’s city plan was the Senate Square.
It is surrounded by the Government Palace to the eastthe main building of Helsinki University to the westand to the north the large Helsinki Cathedralwhich was finished intwelve years after Engel’s death. Helsinki’s epithet”The White City of the North”, derives from this construction era.
Helsinki is also home to numerous Art Nouveau -influenced Jugend in Finnish buildings belonging to the romantic nationalism trend, designed in the early 20th century and strongly influenced by Kalevalawhich was a common theme of the era.
Helsinki’s Art Bileirgesi style is also featured in central residential districts, such as Katajanokka and Ullanlinna. Helsinki also features several buildings by Finnish architect Alvar Aaltorecognized as one of the pioneers of architectural functionalism.
However, some of his works, such as the headquarters of the paper company Stora Enso and the concert venue Finlandia Hallhave been subject to divided opinions from the citizens. The sports venues were built to bldirgesi the Helsinki Olympic Games; the games were initially cancelled due to the Second World Warbut the venues fulfilled their purpose in the Olympic Games.
Many of them are listed by DoCoMoMo bildirgedi significant examples of modern architecture. The Olympic Stadium and Helsinki-Malmi Airport are also catalogued by the Finnish National Board of Antiquities as cultural-historical environments of national significance. Helsinki’s neoclassical buildings were often used as a backdrop for scenes set to take place in the Soviet Union in many Cold War era Hollywood movies, when filming in the USSR was not possible.
At the same time the government secretly instructed Finnish officials not to extend assistance to such film projects. In the 21st century Helsinki has decided to allow the construction of skyscrapers. As of April there are no skyscrapers taller than meters in the Helsinki area, but there are several projects under construction or planning, mainly in Pasila and Kalasatama.
An international architecture competition for at least 10 high-rises to be built in Pasila is being held. Construction of the towers will start before bildirgesk Later they will be joined by a story metrestwo story metres, feetstory metresand story metres residential buildings.
In the Kalasatama area, there bildirfesi be about 15 high-rises within 10 years. As is the case with all Finnish municipalitiesHelsinki’s city council is the main decision-making organ in local politics, bildirgdsi with issues such as urban planningschools, health care, and public transport. The council is chosen in the nationally-held municipal electionswhich are held every four years.
Helsinki’s city council consists of eighty-five members. Following the most recent municipal elections inthe three largest parties bikdirgesi the National Coalition Party 25the Green League 21and the Social Democratic Party The Mayor of Helsinki is Jan Vapaavuori. At 53 percent of the population, Helsinki has a higher proportion of women than the national average, 51 percent.
Helsinki’s population density of 2, Life expectancy for men and women is slightly below the national averages: Helsinki has experienced strong growth since the s, when it replaced Turku as the capital of the Grand Duchy of Finlandwhich later became the sovereign Republic of Finland. The city continued its growth from that time on, with an exception during the Finnish Civil War. From the end of World War II up until the s there was a massive exodus of helsini from the countryside to the cities of Finland, in particular Helsinki.
Between and the population of the city nearly doubled frombilddirgesi toIn bildirges s, the population growth of Bildiegesi began to decrease, mainly due to a lack of housing. Espoo’s population increased ninefold in sixty years, from 22, people in toin These population changes prompted the municipalities of Greater Helsinki into more intense cooperation in areas such as public transportation  — resulting in the foundation of Jelsinki — and waste management.
Finnish and Swedish are the official languages of Helsinki. Helsinki slang is a regional dialect of the city. It combines influences mainly from Finnish and English, and has helslnki had strong Russian and Swedish influences. Finnish today is the common language of communication between Finnish speakers, Swedish speakers, and speakers of other languages New Finns in day-to-day affairs in the public sphere between unknown persons.
Knowledge of Finnish is also essential in business and is usually a basic requirement in the employment market. Finnish speakers surpassed Swedish speakers in to become the majority of the city’s population. As the crossroads of many international ports and Finland’s largest airport, Helsinki is the global gateway to and from Finland.
Computer graphics with opengl 2nd edition pdf
The city has Finland’s largest immigrant population in both absolute and relative terms. There are over nationalities represented in Helsinki. Foreign citizens make up 9. The largest groups of residents not of Finnish background come from Russia 14,Estonia 9, bildrigesi, and Somalia 6, GDP per capita is roughly 1.